This study reports on a collaborative research on the design, instrumentation, and preliminary analytical studies of two, full-scale, four-story buildings tested simultaneously on the NIED E-Defense shake table in December 2010. The two buildings are similar, with the same height and floor plan; one building utilized a conventional reinforced concrete (RC) structural system with shear walls and moment frames, whereas the other utilized the same systems constructed with post-tensioned (PT) members. The buildings were subjected to increasing intensity shaking using the JMA-Kobe record until a near-collapse state was reached. This report summarizes design issues and design documents, and provides detailed information on the type and location of sensors used. Initial analytical studies conducted both in the Japan and U.S. to support the design strategy and instrumentation of the buildings also are documented. The intent of this report is to provide a resource document for post-test research and high-impact education and outreach efforts.