Response of a Buried Concrete Pipeline to Ground Rupture: A Full-Scale Experiment and Simulation
A typical water distribution system includes a network of steel and concrete pipelines. Concrete segmental pipelines are particularly vulnerable to damage by ground rupture. Ground displacements may produce significant bending in the pipelines, in addition to shear and net tension or compression. A full-scale experiment was performed on a buried segmental concrete pipeline subjected to the ground rupture. The pipeline was buried under a layer of sand in a test tank with length of about 13.4 m. A dense array of sensors including potentiometers, strain gauges, load cells, acoustic emission sensors, magnetic sensors, and tape gauges were installed along the length of the pipeline to measure the pipeline response to ground displacements. Permanent displacement was induced by movement of one portion of the test basin. The test was static in nature, and it was to simulate the fault displacement rather than earthquake shaking. Deformation of the pipeline and damage were monitored during the process of displacement, and the topography of the ground surface was surveyed. The pipeline damage was recorded after it was excavated at the conclusion of the test. The experimental assembly was simulated numerically to indicate the extent of the numerical model necessary to make reasonable predictions of the response of the pipeline to permanent ground displacements. This paper reports on some strain data collected during the experiment and on the numerical simulation effort.