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Understanding and Improving the Seismic Behavior of Pile Foundations in Soft Clays
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Experiment-9: Seismic and Cyclic Lateral Load Tests of Pile Groups and Single Piles - Centrifuge Model No. 4
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DOI:10.4231/D39P2W61H
Experiment Type: Centrifuge
Description: In this series of centrifuge tests, seismic and cyclic lateral loading behavior of pile groups as well as single piles in unimproved and CDSM (Cement Deep Soil Mixing)improved soft clay was investigated.
Soft clays have undrained shear strength lower than 25 kPa. To satisfy the requirements of the testing soil, i.e., low strength and acceptable permeability, commercially available Kaolin and white fine sand were selected for mixing. The mixture consisted of 1/1 Kaolin/sand by weight with an initial water content of 64%. CDSM consisted of Kaolin/sand mixture prepared at a water content of 34% mixed with cement slurry (10%, by weight, cement/dry soil and 1:1, by weight, cement/water). The soil profile consisted of four lightly over-consolidated clay layers with a total depth of 600 mm. The clay layers were overlaying a dense layer of Nevada sand with a 268 mm thickness and a relative density of 86% (void ratio of 0.57). The piles were steel tubes with an outside diameter of 9.525 mm and a wall thickness 0.889 mm. The piles were tested in 2×2 configurations with a distance to pile diameter ratio of 3.0. An aluminum cap was fixed to the piles above ground. All tests were performed in a flexible shear container (FSB) at a centrifugal acceleration of 30 g. In these tests, two different CDSM configurations were used for pile groups and for single piles as well. For pile groups, the larger and smaller blocks had length to depth ratio of 23D/9D and 11D/9D, respectively; where D is the outside diameter of the pile. In single piles, the larger and smaller blocks had length to depth ratio of 8D/9D and 6D/9D, respectively. All pile foundations were subjected to three loading scenarios:
1. Very small amplitude cyclic lateral loading of pile foundations subjected to a sinusoidal wave at the top of the cap and under displacement controlled conditions.

2. Seismic excitation of pile foundations at base: The excitation started with step waves followed by the Kobe 1995 Earthquake at the firs day, and the Loma Prieta- Santa Cruz 1989 at the second day.

3. Large amplitude cyclic lateral loading of pile foundations subjected to a sinusoidal wave at the top of the cap and under displacement controlled conditions.
Dates: May 31, 2012 - August 30, 2012
Facility: University of California, Davis, CA, United States
Equipment: View Details
Specimen Type: Centrifuge Model No. 4
Material: Piles Piles (view)
Soft Clay Soft Clay (view)
CDSM CDSM (view)
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Sensors: Small Amplitude Lateral Cyclic Loading of SU
Large Amplitude Lateral Cyclic Loading of SU
Small Amplitude Lateral Cyclic Loading of SI
Large Amplitude Lateral Cyclic Loading of SI
Small Amplitude Lateral Cyclic Loading of DI
Large Amplitude Lateral Cyclic Loading of DI
Small Amplitude Lateral Cyclic Loading of GU
Large Amplitude Lateral Cyclic Loading of GU
Small Amplitude Lateral Cyclic Loading of GIS
Large Amplitude Lateral Cyclic Loading of GIS
Small Amplitude Lateral Cyclic Loading of GIL
Large Amplitude Lateral Cyclic Loading of GIL
Kobe Earthquake, 1995
Santa Cruz Earthquake, 1989
Drawings:
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Data:
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Documentation:
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Analysis:
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Tags (keywords):
  1. Pile Foundations
  2. Soft clay
  3. ground improvement
  4. CDSM
  5. Seismic
  6. Cyclic lateral loading
  7. Centrifuge testing
  8. Soil Structure Interaction
Cite this work:
Amirata Taghavi, Kanthasamy Muraleetharan, G.A. Miller, Amy Cerato (2013). "Seismic and Cyclic Lateral Load Tests of Pile Groups and Single Piles - Centrifuge Model No. 4", Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (distributor), Dataset, DOI:10.4231/D39P2W61H