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Hybrid Simulation and Real-time Hybrid Simulation Resources in the NEEShub

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Version 28
by Amin Maghareh

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This wiki page provides a list of resources within the NEEShub related to hybrid simulation (HS) and real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) for earthquake engineering. These technologies are enabling researchers to conduct a wide array of experiments to examine the behavior of structures under realistic conditions.
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Hybrid simulation (HS) is a cost-effective experimental technique to evaluate the dynamic performance of large civil structures. In hybrid simulation, a civil structure is partitioned into two substructures, (1) physical substructure, which usually includes more complex components and (2) numerical substructure, which usually includes well-studied components. And the coupling between the two substructures is achieved by enforcing equilibrium and compatibility at the interface.
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Advances in embedded systems with hard real-time computing capabilities have facilitated the use of real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) methods. Real-time hybrid simulation, which is performing hybrid simulation at real time, offers the capability of preserving rate dependence while examining the global performance (the reference structure) and local performance (the physical substructure). In RTHS, the interface interaction between the substructures is enforced by servo-hydraulic actuators or shake table which act as a transfer system. The transfer system should be designed and controlled to ensure that all the interface boundary conditions are satisfied at real time. It is known that the stability and performance of RTHS are functions of three major factors, (1) the overall dynamics of a reference system, (2) how a reference system is partitioned into numerical and physical substructures, and (3) how well the interface boundary conditions are met by a transfer system.
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A typical RTHS system usually consists of the cyber and physical components,
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Cyber Components
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Those components that execute user programmed digital components (numerical model and actuator motion control scheme) and subsequently communicate with the sensing and analog control system through I/O modulus. Real-time kernel is included to meet the time scale constrains of RTHS.
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Cyber components usually include,
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• Numerical Substructure (or Computational Substructure): Numerical model of the well-studied components in the reference structure.
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• Transfer System Control: Digital controller is usually included to further enhance the synchronization between computational and experimental substructures.
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• Visualization and Control Dashboard: User interfaces can be included to facilitate test operation and visualize results during the tests.
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Physical components
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Physical components usually include,
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• Physical Substructure: It includes more complex components of the reference structure and it will be constructed in the lab.
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• Sensing System: In HS and RTHS, different sensors, e.g. accelerometers, LVDTs, force transducers, etc., are used to measure the restoring force of the physical substructure and monitor the performance.
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• Transfer System: The interface interaction between the substructures is enforced by servo-hydraulic actuators or shake table which act as a transfer system.
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= List of Resources =
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== Projects ==
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* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/4 Real-time Fast Hybrid Testing Steel Frame Test ]
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* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/21 Semiactive Control of Nonlinear Structures ]
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* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/711 Advanced Servo-Hydraulic Control and Real-Time Testing of Damped Structures ]
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* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/685 Framework for Development of Hybrid Simulation in an Earthquake Impact Assessment Context ]
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* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/570 International Hybrid Simulation of Tomorrow's Braced Frame Systems. ]
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* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/972 Development of a Real-Time Multi-Site Hybrid Testing Tool for NEES ]
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* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/1135 Development and Validation of a Robust Framework for Real-time Hybrid Testing ]
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* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/973 Real-Time Hybrid Simulation Test-Bed for Structural Systems with Smart Dampers ]
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== Tools ==
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* [http://nees.org/resources/nhcp NHCP ]
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* [http://nees.org/resources/openfresco OpenFresco ]
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* [http://nees.org/resources/uisimcor UI-SimCor ]
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* [http://nees.org/resources/realtimeframe2d RT-Frame2D ]
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== Publications ==
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* [http://nees.org/resources/676 Real-time Hybrid Simulation Benchmark Study with a Large-Scale MR Damper ]
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* [http://nees.org/resources/670 Comparison of 200 KN MR Damper Models for use in Real-time Hybrid Simulation ]
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* [http://nees.org/resources/5310 Evaluation of Structural Control Strategies for Improving Seismic Performance of Buildings with MR Dampers Using Real-Time Large-Scale Hybrid Simulation ]
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* [http://nees.org/resources/561 A Tracking Error-Based Adaptive Compensation Scheme for Real- Time Hybrid Simulation ]
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* [http://nees.org/resources/559 Servo-Hydraulic Actuator Control for Real-Time Hybrid Simulation ]
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* [http://nees.org/resources/674 Accommodating MR Damper Dynamics for Control of Large Scale Structural Systems ]
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* [http://nees.org/resources/693 Real-Time Hybrid Testing of an MR Damper for Response-Reduction (Dissertation) ]
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* [http://nees.org/resources/2668 Hybrid Simulation Evaluation of Innovative Steel Braced Framing System ]
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* [http://nees.org/resources/4494 Increasing Resilience in Civil Structures Using Smart Damping Technology (Dissertation)]
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* [http://nees.org/resources/4699 Evaluating Modeling Choices in the Implementation of Real-time Hybrid Simulation ]
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* [http://nees.org/resources/5306 Final Report: Evaluation of a real-time hybrid simulation system for performance evaluation of structures with rate dependent devices subjected to seismic loading ]
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* [http://nees.org/resources/5023 Model-Based Framework for Real-Time Dynamic Structural Performance Evaluation ]
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* [http://nees.org/resources/5065 Development of a Robust Framework for Real-Time Hybrid Simulation: from Dynamical System, Motion Control to Experimental Error Verification (Dissertation)]
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* [http://nees.org/resources/5059 Development and validation of a real-time computational framework for hybrid simulation of dynamically-excited steel frame structures (Dissertation)]
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== Reports ==
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* [http://nees.org/resources/3834 NEES Vision Report on Computational and Hybrid Simulation (Committee Report) ]
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* [http://nees.org/resources/690 Advanced Servo-Hydraulic Control And Real-Time Testing Of Damped Structures ]
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* [http://nees.org/resources/790 Semiactive Control of Nonlinear Structures ]
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* [http://nees.org/resources/4251 Development and Validation of a Robust Actuator Motion Controller for Real-time Hybrid Simulation Applications ]
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* [http://nees.org/resources/5080 Development and Validation of a Computational Tool for Real-time Hybrid of Steel Frame Structures ]
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* [http://nees.org/resources/5414 Hybrid Testing in NEESR Projects ]
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== Workshops ==
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* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/572 CU/NEES Fast Hybrid Testing Workshop ]
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* [https://nees.org/events/details/41 Hybrid Simulation Workshop at NEES@Berkeley ]
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* [https://nees.org/events/details/71 Advances in Real-Time Hybrid Simulation Workshop at NEES@Lehigh ]
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* [http://nees.org/groups/4254 Hybrid Simulation Workshop @ Harbin Institute of Technology ]
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== Multimedia ==
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* [https://nees.org/resources/4625 NEES@Berkeley project highlight: NEES TIPS Seismic Isolation Hybrid Simulation ]
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* [https://nees.org/resources/5298 NEES@Berkeley project highlight: International Hybrid Simulation of Tomorrow's Braced Frame ]
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* [https://nees.org/resources/5296 NEES@Berkeley project highlight: Hybrid Testing of Squat RC Shear Walls ]