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- by Fangshu Lin
- Version 156
- by Amin Maghareh
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This wiki provides a list of resources within the NEEShub related to hybrid simulation (HS) and real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) for earthquake engineering. These technologies are enabling researchers to conduct a wide array of experiments to examine the behavior of structures under realistic loading conditions.
To join the hybrid simulation group and be pointed toward resources and discussions about hybrid simulation, please go to: [http://nees.org/groups/hybrid_simulation_workshop Hybrid Simulation Workshop] and click on the big "Join Group" button shown in orange on the left.
'''HYBRID SIMULATION (HS):''' Hybrid simulation is a cost-effective experimental technique to evaluate the dynamic performance of large or full scale civil structures. In hybrid simulation, the rate-dependent behavior of a civil structure, including inertial and damping effects, is simulated numerically while the displacement-dependent behavior is evaluated through experimentation. Furthermore, through the technique of substructuring, a structure (total or reference structure) can be partitioned into, (1) a physical (or experimental) substructure, which usually includes the more complex components and (2) a numerical (or computational, analytical) substructure, which usually includes well-understood behavior that can be captured by numerical models. The coupling between the two substructures is achieved by enforcing equilibrium and compatibility at the interface using a transfer system such as servo-hydraulic actuators.
'''REAL-TIME HYBRID SIMULATION (RTHS):''' Advances in embedded systems with hard real-time computing capabilities have facilitated the use of real-time hybrid simulation methods. Compared to HS, RTHS offers the capability of accurately representing the rate-dependent behavior of the physical components while examining the global performance (the reference structure) and local performance (the physical substructure). In RTHS, the interface interaction between the substructures is enforced by servo-hydraulic actuators or a shake table which act as the transfer system. A transfer system must be controlled to ensure that all interface boundary conditions are satisfied in real time. Performance of RTHS are functions of four major factors (1) the overall dynamics of the total structure (2) the accuracy of the numerical substructure (3) how the total structure is partitioned into numerical and physical substructures (4) how well the interface boundary conditions are achieved by the transfer system.
[[Image(RTHS.GIF, 500px, align=center)]]
A typical RTHS system consists of cyber and physical components.
'''A. Cyber Components:'''
These components execute user programmed digital functions (numerical model and transfer system motion control scheme) and while communicating with the physical world through I/O and analog sensing and actuation systems. A real-time kernel is included to meet the time scale constraints of RTHS. Cyber components include,
• Numerical Substructure: Portion of the total structure included in the numerical model.
• Transfer System Control: Digital controller is included to enable synchronization between numerical and physical substructures.
• Visualization and Control Dashboard: User interfaces and data logging components facilitate operation and visualization results during a hybrid experiment.
'''B. Physical components:'''
This term refers to the portions of the reference structure that are present in the laboratory, as well as the sensors and transfer system that are used for performing the experiment. In RTHS, measured responses are fed back to the cyber components in real time. Physical components include,
• Physical Substructure: Portion of the reference structure included in the physical specimen.
• Sensing System: In RTHS, sensors, e.g. accelerometers, LVDTs, force transducers, etc., are used to measure the restoring force and local response for transfer system control feedback of the physical substructure and monitor the performance.
• Actuation System: The interface interaction between the substructures is enforced by servo-hydraulic actuators or a shake table which acts as a transfer system.
|32||= List of Resources =|
|36||* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/4 Real-time Fast Hybrid Testing Steel Frame Test ]|
|37||* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/135 Hybrid Simulation and Shake-Table Tests on RC Buildings With Masonry Infill Walls ]|
* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/605 International Hybrid Simulation of Tomorrow's Braced Frame Systems ]
|39||* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/21 Semiactive Control of Nonlinear Structures ]|
|40||* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/711 Advanced Servo-Hydraulic Control and Real-Time Testing of Damped Structures ]|
* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/of ]
* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/of ]
* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/of Multi-Hybrid Testing ]
|44||* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/1135 Development and Validation of a Robust Framework for Real-time Hybrid Testing ]|
|45||* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/973 Real-Time Hybrid Simulation Test-Bed for Structural Systems with Smart Dampers ]|
* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/676 Performance-based design of squat concrete walls of conventional and composite construction ]
* [http://nees.org/novel-hybrid-simulation EAGER: Next Generation Hybrid Simulation, Evaluation and Theory ]
* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/685 Framework for Development of Hybrid Simulation in an Earthquake Impact Assessment Context ]
|51||== Tools ==|
|52||* [http://nees.org/resources/nhcp NHCP ]|
|53||* [http://nees.org/resources/openfresco OpenFresco ]|
|54||* [http://nees.org/resources/uisimcor UI-SimCor ]|
|55||* [http://nees.org/resources/realtimeframe2d RT-Frame2D ]|
|57||== Publications ==|
* [http://nees.org/resources/676 Real-time Hybrid Simulation Benchmark Study with a Large-Scale MR Damper ]
* [http://nees.org/resources/676 Real-time Hybrid Simulation Benchmark Study with a Large-Scale MR Damper