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Hybrid Simulation and Real-time Hybrid Simulation Resources in the NEEShub

‘This wiki provides a list of resources within the NEEShub related to hybrid simulation (HS) and real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) for earthquake engineering. These technologies are enabling researchers to conduct a wide array of experiments to examine the behavior of structures under realistic loading conditions.’

HYBRID SIMULATION(HS) ‘Hybrid simulation is a cost-effective experimental technique to evaluate the dynamic performance of large or full scale civil structures. In hybrid simulation, the rate-dependent behavior of a civil structure, including inertial and damping effects, is simulated numerically while the displacement-dependent behavior is evaluated through experimentation. Furthermore, through the technique of substructuring, a structure (total or reference structure) can be partitioned into, (1) a physical (or experimental) substructure, which usually includes the more complex components and (2) a numerical (or computational, analytical) substructure, which usually includes well-understood behavior that can be captured by numerical models. The coupling between the two substructures is achieved by enforcing equilibrium and compatibility at the interface using a transfer system such as servo-hydraulic actuators.’

REAL-TIME HYBRID SIMULATION (RTHS) Advances in embedded systems with hard real-time computing capabilities have facilitated the use of real-time hybrid simulation methods. Compared to HS, RTHS offers the capability of accurately representing the rate-dependent behavior of the physical components while examining the global performance (the reference structure) and local performance (the physical substructure). In RTHS, the interface interaction between the substructures is enforced by servo-hydraulic actuators or a shake table which act as the transfer system. A transfer system must be controlled to ensure that all interface boundary conditions are satisfied in real time. Performance of RTHS are functions of four major factors, (1) the overall dynamics of the total structure (2) the accuracy of the numerical substructure (3) how the total structure is partitioned into numerical and physical substructures, (4) how well the interface boundary conditions are achieved by the transfer system.

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