'This wiki provides a list of resources within the NEEShub related to hybrid simulation (HS) and real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) for earthquake engineering. These technologies are enabling researchers to conduct a wide array of experiments to examine the behavior of structures under realistic loading conditions.'

'''HYBRID SIMULATION(HS):''' Hybrid simulation is a cost-effective experimental technique to evaluate the dynamic performance of large or full scale civil structures. In hybrid simulation, the rate-dependent behavior of a civil structure, including inertial and damping effects, is simulated numerically while the displacement-dependent behavior is evaluated through experimentation. Furthermore, through the technique of substructuring, a structure (total or reference structure) can be partitioned into, (1) a physical (or experimental) substructure, which usually includes the more complex components and (2) a numerical (or computational, analytical) substructure, which usually includes well-understood behavior that can be captured by numerical models. The coupling between the two substructures is achieved by enforcing equilibrium and compatibility at the interface using a transfer system such as servo-hydraulic actuators.

'''REAL-TIME HYBRID SIMULATION (RTHS):''' Advances in embedded systems with hard real-time computing capabilities have facilitated the use of real-time hybrid simulation methods. Compared to HS, RTHS offers the capability of accurately representing the rate-dependent behavior of the physical components while examining the global performance (the reference structure) and local performance (the physical substructure). In RTHS, the interface interaction between the substructures is enforced by servo-hydraulic actuators or a shake table which act as the transfer system. A transfer system must be controlled to ensure that all interface boundary conditions are satisfied in real time. Performance of RTHS are functions of four major factors (1) the overall dynamics of the total structure (2) the accuracy of the numerical substructure (3) how the total structure is partitioned into numerical and physical substructures (4) how well the interface boundary conditions are achieved by the transfer system.

= List of Resources =

== Projects ==
* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/24 Behavior of Braced Steel Frames With Innovative Bracing Schemes - A NEES Collaboratory Project ]
* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/4 Real-time Fast Hybrid Testing Steel Frame Test ]
* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/135 Hybrid Simulation and Shake-Table Tests on RC Buildings With Masonry Infill Walls ]
* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/605 International Hybrid Simulation of Tomorrow's Braced Frame Systems ]
* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/21 Semiactive Control of Nonlinear Structures ]
* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/711 Advanced Servo-Hydraulic Control and Real-Time Testing of Damped Structures ]
* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/685 Framework for Development of Hybrid Simulation in an Earthquake Impact Assessment Context ]
* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/648 Performance-Based Design and Real-Time Large-Scale Testing to Enable Implementation of Advanced Damping Systems ]
* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/972 Development of a Real-Time Multi-Site Hybrid Testing Tool for NEES ]
* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/912 Collapse Simulation of Multi-Story Buildings Through Hybrid Testing ]
* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/1135 Development and Validation of a Robust Framework for Real-time Hybrid Testing ]
* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/973 Real-Time Hybrid Simulation Test-Bed for Structural Systems with Smart Dampers ]

== Tools ==
* [http://nees.org/resources/nhcp NHCP ]
* [http://nees.org/resources/openfresco OpenFresco ]
* [http://nees.org/resources/uisimcor UI-SimCor ]
* [http://nees.org/resources/realtimeframe2d RT-Frame2D ]

== Publications ==
* [http://nees.org/resources/676 Real-time Hybrid Simulation Benchmark Study with a Large-Scale MR Damper ]
* [http://nees.org/resources/670 Comparison of 200 KN MR Damper Models for use in Real-time Hybrid Simulation ]
* [http://nees.org/resources/5310 Evaluation of Structural Control Strategies for Improving Seismic Performance of Buildings with MR Dampers Using Real-Time Large-Scale Hybrid Simulation ]
* [http://nees.org/resources/561 A Tracking Error-Based Adaptive Compensation Scheme for Real- Time Hybrid Simulation ]
* [http://nees.org/resources/559 Servo-Hydraulic Actuator Control for Real-Time Hybrid Simulation ]
* [http://nees.org/resources/674 Accommodating MR Damper Dynamics for Control of Large Scale Structural Systems ]
* [http://nees.org/resources/693 Real-Time Hybrid Testing of an MR Damper for Response-Reduction (Dissertation) ]
* [http://nees.org/resources/2668 Hybrid Simulation Evaluation of Innovative Steel Braced Framing System ]
* [http://nees.org/resources/4494 Increasing Resilience in Civil Structures Using Smart Damping Technology (Dissertation)]
* [http://nees.org/resources/4699 Evaluating Modeling Choices in the Implementation of Real-time Hybrid Simulation ]
* [http://nees.org/resources/5023 Model-Based Framework for Real-Time Dynamic Structural Performance Evaluation ]
* [http://nees.org/resources/5065 Development of a Robust Framework for Real-Time Hybrid Simulation: from Dynamical System, Motion Control to Experimental Error Verification (Dissertation)]
* [http://nees.org/resources/5059 Development and validation of a real-time computational framework for hybrid simulation of dynamically-excited steel frame structures (Dissertation)]

== Reports ==
* [http://nees.org/resources/3834 NEES Vision Report on Computational and Hybrid Simulation (Committee Report) ]
* [http://nees.org/resources/4251 Development and Validation of a Robust Actuator Motion Controller for Real-time Hybrid Simulation Applications ]
* [http://nees.org/resources/5080 Development and Validation of a Computational Tool for Real-time Hybrid of Steel Frame Structures ]
* [http://nees.org/resources/5414 Hybrid Testing in NEESR Projects ]

== Workshops ==
* [http://nees.org/warehouse/project/572 CU/NEES Fast Hybrid Testing Workshop ]
* [https://nees.org/events/details/41 Hybrid Simulation Workshop at NEES@Berkeley ]
* [https://nees.org/events/details/71 Advances in Real-Time Hybrid Simulation Workshop at NEES@Lehigh ]

== Multimedia ==
* [https://nees.org/resources/4625 NEES@Berkeley project highlight: NEES TIPS Seismic Isolation Hybrid Simulation ]
* [https://nees.org/resources/5298 NEES@Berkeley project highlight: International Hybrid Simulation of Tomorrow's Braced Frame ]
* [https://nees.org/resources/5296 NEES@Berkeley project highlight: Hybrid Testing of Squat RC Shear Walls ]
* [https://nees.org/resources/5789 Pseudo-dynamic Hybrid Simulation of a Six-Story Building with Self-Centering Energy Dissipating (SCED) Braces ]